What is dark matter? We can neither see it nor detect it with any instrument. CERN is upgrading the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), which is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator ever built, to explore the new high-energy frontier.
The most technically challenging aspects of the upgrade cannot be done by CERN alone and requires collaboration and external expertise. There are 7,000 scientists from over 60 countries working to extend the LHC discovery potential; the accelerator will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value.
Ph.D. student Adrian Oeftiger attends EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) in Switzerland which is one of the High Luminosity LHC beneficiaries. His research group is working to parallelize their algorithms to create software that will offer the possibility of new kinds of beam dynamics studies that have not been possible with the current technology.
Brad: How is your research related to the upgrade of the LHC?
Adrian: My world is all about luminosity; increasing the luminosity of particle beams. It is all about making ultra-high-energy collisions of protons possible, and at the same time providing enough collisions to enable fundamental particle physics research. That means increasing the luminosity. I’m doing my Ph.D. in beam dynamics in the field of accelerator physics.
These days, high-energy particle accelerators are the tools of choice to analyze and understand the fundamental building blocks of our universe. The huge detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, buried about a hundred meters underground in the countryside near Geneva, need ever-increasing collision rates (hence luminosity!): they gather statistics of collision events to explore new realms of physics, to detect extremely rare interaction combinations and the tiniest quantities of new particles, and to find explanations for some of the numerous wonders of the universe we live in. What is the dark matter which makes up 27% of our universe made of? Why is the symmetry between anti-matter and ordinary matter broken, and why do we find only the latter in the universe?
CERN is preparing for the High Luminosity LHC, a powerful upgrade of the present accelerator to increase the chances to answer some of these fundamental questions. Increasing the chances translates to: we need more collisions, so we need higher luminosity. Continue reading